CCNA R/S Pengertian dan Konfigurasi Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Cisco Packet Tracer

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CCNA R/S Pengertian dan Konfigurasi Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)  Cisco Packet Tracer

Pengertian PPP
 

Sering disingkat menjadi PPP adalah sebuah protokol enkapsulasi paket jaringan yang banyak digunakan pada wide area network (WAN). Protokol ini merupakan standar industri yang berjalan pada lapisan data-link (layer 2)  dan dikembangkan pada awal tahun 1990-an sebagai respons terhadap masalah-masalah yang terjadi pada protokol Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), yang hanya mendukung pengalamatan IP statis kepada para kliennya. Dibandingkan dengan pendahulunya (SLIP), PPP jauh lebih baik, mengingat kerja protokol ini lebih cepat, menawarkan koreksi kesalahan, dan negosiasi sesi secara dinamis tanpa adanya intervensi dari pengguna. Selain itu, protokol ini juga mendukung banyak protokol-protokol jaringan secara simultan.

Fitur  PPP

  1. Dapat digunakan di interface fisik : asynchronous serial, synchronous serial (dial-up), ISDN
  2. Mendukun Multiple Protocol Layer Network, misal IP, IPX, AppleTalk
  3. Menyediakan autentikasi (optional) Melalui PAP (2-way authentication) atau CHAP (3-way authentication)
  4. Mendukung koneksi Multilink, loadbalancing Traffic melalui multiple link fisik
  5. Terdapat LQM (Link Quality Monitoring) yang dapat mendeteksi link error dan otomatis mematikan link jika terdapat banyak error
  6. Terdapat loop link detection, yang dapat mendeteksi adanya looping
  7. Menggunakan dua protokol utama untuk establish dan memaintain link yaitu LCP (Link Control Protocol) dan NCP (Network Control Protocol)
  8. PPP menggunakan Tingkat Tinggi Data Link Control (HDLC) protokol sebagai dasar untuk encapsulating datagrams lebih link point-to-point 
  9. PPP protocol beroperasi melalui koneksi interface piranti Data Communication Equipment  (DCE) dan piranti Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).
  10. PPP protocol mendukung authentication kedua jenis clear text PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) dan enkripsi CHAP (Chalange Handshake Authentication Protocol)  
  11. LCP dipertukarkan saat link dibangun untuk mengetest jalur dan setuju karenanya
    PPP protocol mendukung berbagai macam protocol layer diatasnya seperti IP; IPX; AppleTalk dan sebagainya.
     

PPP mengandung Header yang mengindikasikan pemakaian protocol layer Network.PPP protocol Link Control Protocol (LCP) merupakan satu set layanan yang melaksanakan setup link dan memiliki Fase sebagai berikut :

·        Link Entablisment and Negotiation, mencoba untuk membentuk link dengan router lawan (pembentukan link) request link dan router tetangga mengirim acnowlegment dengan isi [setuju atau tidak]. Pada fase ini akan menawarkan opsi :
o   Authentication, mengirim dalam persetujuan PAP atau CHAP
o   Compression, setiap mengirim dalam bentuk di kompres atau tidak
o   Multilink, dalam satu interface dalpat membuat beberapa virtual link
·        Determination Link Qualitiy, menentukan kualitas linknya (optional)
·        NCP (Network Control Protocol) berfungsi mengontrol establisment

PPP protocol dapat berjalan pada bermacam-macam standard physical synchronous danasynckronous termasuk :

              >Serial Asynchronous seperti dial-up 

                >ISDN 

                  >Serial synchronous 

                    >HIgh Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)

             Konfigurasi

            •  Setup PPP encapsulation pada interface 

            (IF) encapsuation ppp
            note: encapsulation ppp harus di setup dulu sebelum konfigurasi autentikasi atau kompresi

            • Pilih mode autentikasi PAP atau CHAP (optional)

            (IF) ppp authentication <chap|pap>

            • Apabila autentikasi digunakan, buatlah username dan password 

            (IF) username <hostname> password <paasword>

            • Mengaktifkan kompresi

            (IF) ppp compression

             =================================================================== 
            KONFIGURASI POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL (PPP) CISCO PACKET TRACER
            ===================================================================
            Tujuan

            • Setting Routing
            • Setting enkapsulasi PPP 


            siapkan topologinya seperti gamabr dibawah , sudah tertera IP address masing masing device

             kemudian kasih ip address tiap end device


            =======================================================================
            Konfigurasi Routing OSPF ID 1
            =======================================================================
            Setting Routing

            •  Aktifkan Routing OSPF single-area pada semua router dan menggunakan proses ID 1.Tambahkan semua network ke dalam proses OSPF kecuali 209.165.200.224/27

            Central

            Router>en
            Router#conf ter
            Router(config)#hostname central
            central(config)#int ser0/0/0
            central(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.252
            central(config-if)#no sh
            central(config-if)#int se0/0/1
            central(config-if)#ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.252
            central(config-if)#no sh
            central(config)#int lo0
            central(config-if)#ip address 209.165.200.225 255.255.255.224
            central(config-if)#ex
            central(config)#router ospf 1
            central(config-router)#net 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
            central(config-router)#net 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
            central(config-router)#ex
            central(config)#do wr
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            central(config)#do cop run sta
            Destination filename [startup-config]?
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            central(config)#


            Branch1

            Router>en
            Router#conf ter
            Router(config)#hostname branch1
            branch1(config)#int se0/0/0
            branch1(config-if)#ip add 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252
            branch1(config-if)#n sh
            branch1(config-if)#int gig0/0
            branch1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
            branch1(config-if)#no sh
            branch1(config-if)#ex
            branch1(config)#router ospf 1
            branch1(config-router)#net 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
            branch1(config-router)#net 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
            branch1(config-router)#ex
            branch1(config)#do wr
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            branch1(config)#do cop run sta
            Destination filename [startup-config]?
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            branch1(config)#


            Branch2

            Router>en
            Router#conf ter
            Router(config)#hostname branch2
            branch2(config)#int se0/0/1
            branch2(config-if)#ip add 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.252
            branch2(config-if)#n sh
            branch2(config-if)#int gig0/0
            branch2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
            branch2(config-if)#no sh
            branch2(config-if)#ex
            branch2(config)#router ospf 1
            branch2(config-router)#net 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
            branch2(config-router)#net 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
            branch2(config-router)#ex
            branch2(config)#do wr
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            branch2(config)#do cop run sta
            Destination filename [startup-config]?
            Building configuration…
            [OK]
            branch2(config)#

            ======================================================================
            Verifikasi
            ======================================================================
            Ping ke masing masing end device

            ==========================================================
            KONFIGURASI ENKAPSULASI PPP ANTARA BRANCH1 DAN CENTRAL
            ==========================================================

            branch1#sh int se0/0/0
            Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
              Hardware is HD64570
              Internet address is 10.1.1.1/30
              MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
                 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
              Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
              Last input never, output never, output hang never
              Last clearing of “show interface” counters never
              Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0
              Queueing strategy: weighted fair
              Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
                 Conversations  0/0/256 (active/max active/max total)
                 Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
                 Available Bandwidth 1158 kilobits/sec
              5 minute input rate 61 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
              5 minute output rate 62 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
                 146 packets input, 9868 bytes, 0 no buffer
                 Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
                 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
                 138 packets output, 9272 bytes, 0 underruns
                 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 2 interface resets
                 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
                 0 carrier transitions
                 DCD=up  DSR=up  DTR=up  RTS=up  CTS=up

            branch1#

            Harap diingat bahwa HDLC sebagai default enkapsulasi pada serial router cisco , maka harus diubah ke PPP

            =========================================================

            branch1#conf ter
            branch1(config)#int se0/0/0
            branch1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp


            =========================================================
            se0/0/0 di branch masih DOWN , karena int se0/0/0 di central belum di config PPP

            branch1(config-if)#ex
            branch1(config)#ex
            branch1#
            %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

            branch1#sh ip int br
            Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
            GigabitEthernet0/0     192.168.1.1     YES manual up                    up
            GigabitEthernet0/1     unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            Serial0/0/0            10.1.1.1        YES manual up                    down
            Serial0/0/1            unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            Vlan1                  unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            branch1#


            =========================================================
            Setting enkapsilasi PPP

            central(config)#int se0/0/0
            central(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
            central(config-if)#


            =========================================================
            Kita lihat lagi bahwa sudah terenkapsulasi PPP di branch1

            branch1#sh int se0/0/0
            Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
              Hardware is HD64570
              Internet address is 10.1.1.1/30
              MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
                 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
              Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
              LCP Open
              Open: IPCP, CDPCP
              Last input never, output never, output hang never
              Last clearing of “show interface” counters never
              Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0
              Queueing strategy: weighted fair
              Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
                 Conversations  0/0/256 (active/max active/max total)
                 Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
                 Available Bandwidth 1158 kilobits/sec
              5 minute input rate 16 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
              5 minute output rate 17 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
                 15 packets input, 1160 bytes, 0 no buffer
                 Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
                 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
                 13 packets output, 868 bytes, 0 underruns
                 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
                 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
                 0 carrier transitions
                 DCD=up  DSR=up  DTR=up  RTS=up  CTS=up

            branch1#


            =========================================================
            Begitu juga dengan Router Central

            central#sh int se0/0/0
            Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
              Hardware is HD64570
              Internet address is 10.1.1.2/30
              MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
                 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
              Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
              LCP Open
              Open: IPCP, CDPCP
              Last input never, output never, output hang never
              Last clearing of “show interface” counters never
              Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0
              Queueing strategy: weighted fair
              Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
                 Conversations  0/0/256 (active/max active/max total)
                 Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
                 Available Bandwidth 1158 kilobits/sec
              5 minute input rate 26 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
              5 minute output rate 25 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
                 21 packets input, 1456 bytes, 0 no buffer
                 Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
                 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
                 18 packets output, 1376 bytes, 0 underruns
                 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
                 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
                 0 carrier transitions
                 DCD=up  DSR=up  DTR=up  RTS=up  CTS=up

            central#


            ========================================================
            maka otomatis akan UP sendiri ketika sudah dienkapsulasi antara Branch1 dan Central

            branch1#sh ip int br
            Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
            GigabitEthernet0/0     192.168.1.1     YES manual up                    up
            GigabitEthernet0/1     unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            Serial0/0/0            10.1.1.1        YES manual up                    up
            Serial0/0/1            unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            Vlan1                  unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            branch1#

            central#sh ip int br
            Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
            GigabitEthernet0/0     unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            GigabitEthernet0/1     unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            Serial0/0/0            10.1.1.2        YES manual up                    up
            Serial0/0/1            10.2.2.2        YES manual up                    up
            Loopback0              209.165.200.225 YES manual up                    up
            Vlan1                  unassigned      YES unset  administratively down down
            central#


            ==========================================================
            KONFIGURASI ENKAPSULASI PPP ANTARA BRANCH2 DAN CENTRAL
            ==========================================================

            central(config)#int se0/0/1
            central(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
            central(config-if)#


            =======================================================

            branch2(config)#int se0/0/1
            branch2(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
            branch2(config-if)#

            =======================================================
            LAKUKAN PENGECEKAN SEPERTI ANTARA BRANCH1 DAN CENTRAL
            =======================================================
            Jika sudah selesai verifikasi konektifitas end-to-end dengan cara test ping antar PC0 dan PC1, pastikan bahwa bisa saling ping antara router Central dan branch2 dan routing OSPF berjalan dengan normal.

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            atau lihat video dibawah



            Referensi

            • https://learningto-earning.blogspot.sg/2016/03/pengertian-point-to-point-protocol-ppp.html?showComment=1493551006584#c8765029278945884383 
            • CCNA lab Guide NIXTRAIN

             

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